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                        "SHEPHERDS OF THE FLOCK"

               Their Qualifications - Negative Qualities


1. This is our sixth lesson on the subject of elders...
   a. We began with an introduction to the office, focusing on terms
      used to describe them
   b. We considered their work and responsibility as ordained by God
   c. We noted some preliminary considerations regarding their
   d. We examined the familial qualifications of an elder
   e. We canvassed the positive qualifications of an elder

2. Remember that in the two lists (1Ti 3:1-7; Tit 1:5-9), the
   qualifications contain both...
   a. Positive qualities (what an elder must be)
   b. Negative qualities (what an elder must not be)

[We now turn our attention to the "Negative Qualities" required of
elders, the first being...]

I. NOT GIVEN TO WINE (1Ti 3:3; Tit 1:7)

   A. THE WORD...
      1. Gr., paroinos - "This word not only signifies one who is
         inordinately attached to wine, a winebibber or tippler, but
         also one who is imperious, abusive, insolent, whether through
         wine or otherwise." - Clarke
      2. Translated as:
         a. "not given to wine" (KJV, NKJV)
         b. "not addicted to wine" (NASB)
         c. "no brawler" (ASV)
         d. "not a drunkard" (NRSV)
         e. "who does not transgress over wine" (Syriac version)
         f. "not insolent through wine" (Arabic version)
      3. Used elsewhere:
         a. The word is found only in these two lists - 1Ti 3:3; Tit 1:7
         b. Though the same idea is expressed in regards to deacons
            - cf. 1Ti 3:8

      1. "No more dangerous and hurtful practice is known to man that
         the use of strong drink. An elder must set a good example in
         all things." - Lipscomb
      2. "The same inspired author who advises Timothy to use a little
         wine for the sake of his stomach and frequent illnesses (1 Ti
         5:23), also clearly declares that one who fails to practice
         moderation has no right to a place in the presbytery. A wine-
         bibber, tippler, or drunkard cannot be a worthy overseer."
         - Hendriksen

II. NOT VIOLENT (1Ti 3:3; Tit 1:7)

   A. THE WORD...
      1. Gr., plektes - "bruiser, ready for a blow; a pugnacious,
         contentious, quarrelsome person" - Thayer
      2. Translated as:
         a. "not violent" (NKJV, NRSV)
         b. "no striker" (KJV, ASV)
         c. "not pugnacious" (NASB)
      3. Used elsewhere:
         a. The word is found only in these two lists - 1Ti 3:3; Tit 1:7
         b. Its close connection to the abuse of wine is akin to that
            found in Pr 23:29-30

      1. An elder must not be "ungoverned in temper, ready to resent
         insult or wrong, real or imaginary, quarrelsome, or ready to
         fight." - Lipscomb
      2. "He must be no striker; not quarrelsome; not ready to strike a
         person who may displease him; no persecutor of those who may
         differ from him; not prone, as one wittily said, 'To prove his
         doctrine orthodox By apostolic blows and knocks'." - Clarke

III. NOT GREEDY FOR MONEY (1Ti 3:3; Tit 1:7)

   A. THE WORD...
      1. Gr., aischrokerdes - "eager for base gain, greedy for money"
         - Thayer
      2. Translated as:
         a. "not greedy for money" (NKJV)
         b. "not greedy of filthy lucre" (KJV)
         c. Omitted in 1Ti 3:3 (ASV, NASB, NRSV) - see reason why below
         d. "not greedy of filthy lucre" (ASV, Tit 1:7)
         e. "not fond of sordid gain" (NASB, Tit 1:7)
         f. "not greedy for gain" (NRSV, Tit 1:7)
      3. Used elsewhere:
         a. In reference to deacons - 1Ti 3:8
         b. A similar word used by Peter regarding elders - 1Pe 5:2

      1. "not covetous of getting money, of amassing wealth and riches
         together; or desirous of popular applause and glory from men."
         - Gill
      2. "This clause is not in the Alexandrian copy, nor in five of
         Beza's manuscripts and other copies, nor is it in the Vulgate
         Latin version, nor in any of the Oriental versions; it seems to
         be transcribed from Tit 1:7. And indeed it is unnecessary here;
         since the same is expressed by the word 'covetous', at the end
         of the verse, and makes that a tautology; and moreover, by
         leaving out this clause, the opposition appears more manifest,
         between 'no striker' and what follows ('but patient')." - Gill


   A. THE WORD...
      1. Gr., amachos - "not contentious; abstaining from fighting"
         - Thayer
      2. Translated as:
         a. "not quarrelsome" (NKJV, NRSV)
         b. "not a brawler" (KJV)
         c. "not contentious" (ASV)
         d. "peaceable" (NASB)
      3. Used elsewhere:
         a. Required of all Christians - Tit 3:2
         b. A similar word used of servants of the Lord - cf. 2Ti 2:24

      1. The elder "should not be a man given to contention, or apt to
         take up a quarrel. The Greek is, literally, 'Not disposed to
         fight.' - Barnes
      2. "This does not mean that one is not to stand and contend for
         the truth, but many are ready to contend over unimportant
         matters. Such always live in foment and strife. Even truth and
         right should not be maintained in a contentious spirit."
         - Lipscomb


   A. THE WORD...
      1. Gr., aphilarguros - not loving money, not avaricious - Thayer
      2. Translated as:
         a. "not covetous" (NKJV, KJV)
         b. "no lover of money" (ASV)
         c. "free from the love of money" (NASB)
         d. "not a lover of money" (NRSV)
      3. Used elsewhere:
         a. A virtue expected of all Christians - He 13:5
         b. The vice of covetousness condemned as idolatry - Ep 5:5; Co
         c. The love of money (philarguria) is a root of all kinds of
            evil - 1Ti 6:10

      1. "Not only must the overseer be a man who is far removed from
         the Judas-like attitude (Jn 12:6) of trying to enrich himself
         by dishonest means...but he must also be far removed from
         making the acquisition of earthly treasure his chief goal in
         life even though the means employed should be honest."
         - Hendriksen
      2. "A man should not be put into the ministry who is
         characteristically a lover of money. Such a one, no matter what
         his talents may be, has no proper qualification for the office,
         and will do more harm than good." - Barnes

VI. NOT A NOVICE (1Ti 3:6)

   A. THE WORD...
      1. Gr., neophutos - "newly planted; a new convert, neophyte (one
         who has recently become a Christian)" - Thayer
      2. Translated as:
         a. "not a novice" (NKJV, KJV, ASV)
         b. "not a new convert" (NASB)
         c. "must not be a recent convert" (NRSV)
      3. Not used anywhere else in the Scriptures - yet cf. 1Co 3:1; He
         5:12-13 ("babes")

      1. Paul explains why this qualification is necessary ("lest being
         puffed up pride he fall...")
      2. "The particular peril of a young convert who is placed in a
         position of prominence and power is that of pride...a 'novice'
         might be puffed up with self-conceit and vanity, and so fall
         under the doom incurred by devil, and ceasing to be a minister
         of light, he might become a instrument of darkness." - Erdman


   A. THE WORD...
      1. Gr., authades - "self-pleasing, self-willed, arrogant" - Thayer
      2. Translated as:
         a. "not self-willed" (NKJV, KJV, ASV, NASB)
         b. "must not be arrogant" (NRSV)
      3. Used elsewhere:  in regards to those who despise authority
         - 2Pe 2:10

      1. "Not doing things in the worship and house of God, in the
         ministry of the word, and administration of ordinances,
         according to his own will, but according to the will of God,
         revealed in his word; otherwise what he does will come under
         the name of will worship." - Gill
      2. "...he must not be of such a stubborn spirit that he clings to
         his own will and refuses to listen to reason or facts.  One in
         such a position must have the sincere desire to fully
         investigate all sides, to know the full truth, and then be
         guided by it, and not by the self-will of his own." - Lipscomb


   A. THE WORD...
      1. Gr., orgilos - "prone to anger, irascible" - Thayer
      2. Translated as:
         a. "not quick-tempered" (NKJV, NASB, NRSV)
         b. "not soon angry" (KJV, ASV)
      3. Not used anywhere else in the Scriptures - yet cf. Jm 1:19-20
         ("slow to wrath")

      1. An elder must not be "soon and easily provoked and inflamed.
         How unfit are those to govern a church who cannot govern
         themselves, or their own turbulent and unruly passions! The
         minister must be meek and gentle, and patient towards all men."
         - Henry
      2. An elder must be "one who can restrain and govern himself [He
         should not be one ever ready with an angry, hasty word,
         remembering always his Master, 'who, when he was reviled,
         reviled not again.']." - Lipscomb [J. W. Shepherd]


1. The list of negative qualities can be revealing about the work of
   a. It can test one's patience (e.g., when there is murmuring,
      discontent, or apathy among brethren)
   b. It can place one in volatile situations (e.g., that faced by the
      apostles, cf. Ac 6:1-2)
   c. It can be tempting for those attracted by money (e.g., Judas, the

2. For the flock of God to be well-fed and well-led, it requires men who
   meet both...
   a. The positive qualities (what an elder must be)
   b. The negative qualities (what an elder must not be)

Our next study will review the duties of the sheep toward their
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