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                     "THE EPISTLE TO THE GALATIANS"

                              Chapter Two

OBJECTIVES IN STUDYING THIS CHAPTER

1) To understand why Paul would refuse to circumcise Titus (but then 
   had Timothy circumcised later, as recorded in Acts 16:1-3)

2) To appreciate why it was necessary for Paul to rebuke Peter to his 
   face

3) To understand why if righteousness comes by the law, then Christ's 
   death was in vain

SUMMARY

As Paul continues defending his apostleship, he describes a meeting in
Jerusalem fourteen years after the one with Peter related in chapter 
one.  It was prompted by a revelation, and Barnabas and Titus went with
him to meet "those who were of reputation".  The meeting was private, 
but some false brethren were secretly brought in who sought to demand 
that Titus, a Gentile, be circumcised.  Paul refused, viewing it as an 
effort to bring them back into bondage from which Christ set them free 
(1-5).

The result of the meeting was that "those who seemed to be something" 
added nothing to Paul.  In fact, once they saw that the gospel of the 
uncircumcised had been given to him just as the gospel of the 
circumcised had been given to Peter, and once James, Cephas, and John  
perceived the grace that had been given to Paul, he was extended the 
right hand of fellowship.  They only asked that Paul be mindful of the
poor, something he was very eager to do (6-10).

The rest of the chapter describes a confrontation in Antioch between 
Peter and Paul.  Peter, who was visiting, at first was willing to eat 
with the Gentiles; but when some came from James, out of fear he 
withdrew himself.  Through his influence the rest of the Jews, even 
Barnabas, were carried away into hypocrisy.  This prompted Paul to 
withstand Peter "to his face", and to rebuke him in the presence of 
all.  In the course of his rebuke, Paul stressed that we are justified
by faith in Christ, and not by the works of the law, otherwise Christ 
died in vain (11-24).

OUTLINE

I. THE MEETING AT JERUSALEM (1-10)

   A. IN PRIVATE, WITH THOSE OF REPUTATION (1-5)
      1. Occurring fourteen years later, accompanied by Barnabas and
         Titus (1)
      2. Spurred to go by revelation, he communicated the gospel he had
         preached (2)
      3. Refused to allow Titus to be circumcised, as some brethren 
         desired who were secretly brought in to the meeting (3-5)

   B. HIS SANCTION BY JAMES, CEPHAS, AND JOHN (6-10)
      1. Those who seemed to be something (reputation really made no
         difference) did not add anything to Paul (6)
      2. When those of reputation saw...
         a. That the gospel of the uncircumcised had been committed to
            Paul just as the gospel of the circumcised was to Peter
            (7-8)
         b. That James, Cephas, and John perceived the grace given to
            Paul
         ...they extended the right hand of fellowship to Paul and 
            Barnabas (9)
      3. They asked only that the poor be remembered, something Paul
         was very eager to do (10)

II. THE CONFRONTATION AT ANTIOCH (11-21)

   A. PETER'S HYPOCRISY (11-13)
      1. Paul had to withstand Peter to the face, because he would not
         eat with Gentiles when those from James came to Antioch 
         (11-12)
      2. Peter's example of hypocrisy influenced other Jews, even 
         Barnabas (13)

   B. PAUL'S REBUKE (14-21)
      1. Peter's hypocrisy (14)
         a. He himself, though Jewish, lived as a Gentile
         b. Yet he was compelling Gentiles to live as Jews
      2. A summary of Paul's rebuke (15-21)
         a. Jewish Christians realize that they are justified by faith
            in Christ, not by the works of the law by which no flesh 
            can be justified (15-16)
         b. If I seek to be justified by Christ through a means which
            cannot justify, isn't that making Christ a minister of sin?
            (17)
         c. If I rebuild that which cannot justify and has been 
            destroyed (i.e., the law), won't I become a transgressor
            again? (18)
         d. Through the law, I have died to the law, having been 
            crucified with Christ; Christ now lives in me and the life
            I now live to God is a life of faith in the Son of God
            (19-20)
         e. If righteousness comes through the law, Christ died in 
            vain, and the grace of God has been set aside (21)

REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR THE CHAPTER

1) What are the main points of this chapter?
   - The meeting at Jerusalem (1-10)
   - The confrontation at Antioch (11-21)

2) How long was it before Paul returned to Jerusalem?  Who went with 
   him? (1)
   - Fourteen years
   - Barnabas and Titus

3) What prompted him to go?  What did he do there? (2)
   - A revelation
   - Communicated to those of reputation the gospel he had preached 
     among the Gentiles

4) What did some who were secretly brought in to this meeting try to 
   get Paul to do? Did Paul submit to their command? (3-5)
   - To have Titus circumcised
   - No

5) How do you reconcile Paul's refusal to circumcise Titus with the 
   fact that Paul later had Timothy circumcised? (cf. Ac 16:1-3)
   - Circumcision of a Jewish Christian as a matter of expediency was
     permissible; but circumcision imposed upon a Gentile as an element
     necessary for salvation was not!

6) When did those who "seemed to be something" add to Paul? (6)
   - Nothing

7) What two things prompted them to extend the right hand of fellowship
   to Paul and Barnabas? (7-9)
   - When they saw that the gospel of the uncircumcised had been 
     committed to Paul, just as the gospel to the circumcised had been
     committed to Peter
   - When James, Cephas, and John perceived the grace that had been 
     given to Paul

8) What was the only thing they asked of Paul? (10)
   - To remember the poor

9) When Peter came to Antioch, why did Paul find it necessary to 
   withstand him to his face? (11-12)
   - Because he was willing to eat with Gentiles at first, but when 
     certain men from James came, he withdrew himself out of fear

10) Who else was carried away by Peter's hypocrisy? (13)
   - The rest of the Jews, including Barnabas

11) Briefly describe Paul's main argument as found in verse 16.
   - One is not justified by the works of the law, but by faith in
     Christ

12) How did Paul live his life, once he had died to the law? (19-20)
   - Having been crucified with Christ, he lives by faith in the Son of
     God who loved Him and gave Himself for him

13) If righteousness can come through the law, what does that say about
    the death of Christ? (21)
   - It was in vain
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