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                      "THE EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS"

                             Chapter Five

OBJECTIVES IN STUDYING THIS CHAPTER

1) To appreciate the blessings that accompany justification

2) To comprehend more fully the grace offered through Jesus Christ

SUMMARY

Having substantiated his thesis of "justification by faith" with
evidence from the Old Testament, Paul now discusses the blessings of
such justification.  First, there is peace with God (1).  Second, we
have access to grace in which we stand (2a).  Third, there is cause for
rejoicing in hope, so that we can glory even in tribulations (2b-4).
Fourth, there is God's love which He first demonstrated with the gift
of His Son (5-8).  Finally, there is salvation from God's wrath (9).
All of this is made possible when we are reconciled to God through the
death of His Son and should be the basis for endless rejoicing (10-11).

To explain further the way in which salvation is made possible, Paul 
compares Christ to Adam.  Through one man, Adam, sin and death entered 
the world, and the consequences have led to the death of many.  In a 
similar way, through one man, Christ, many may now become righteous.
Through Jesus' death on the cross, justification is made possible for 
many (12-19).

Upon comparing Christ with Adam, Paul briefly mentions that with the 
entering in of law sin abounded.  But the increase of sin has been 
adequately answered by the grace offered in Jesus Christ (20-21).

OUTLINE

I. THE BLESSINGS OF JUSTIFICATION (1-11)

   A. PEACE WITH GOD (1)

   B. ACCESS TO GRACE IN WHICH WE STAND (2a)

   C. REJOICING IN HOPE, EVEN IN TRIBULATIONS (2b-4)
      1. Joy in anticipating God's glory (2b)
      2. Joy in tribulation, knowing even it results in more hope (3-4)
         a. For tribulation produces perseverance (3b)
         b. And perseverance develops character (4a)
         c. Such character gives one hope (4b)

   D. GOD'S LOVE IN OUR HEARTS (5-8)
      1. The assurance our hope will not be disappointed (5a)
      2. Poured out by the Holy Spirit (5b)
      3. Demonstrated by Christ's death while we were yet sinners (6-8)
       
   E. SALVATION FROM GOD'S WRATH (9-11)
      1. Through Jesus, just as we have been justified by His blood (9)
      2. Saved by His life, just as we were reconciled by His death (10)
      3. The basis for us to rejoice (11)

II. COMPARING CHRIST WITH ADAM (12-21)

   A. ADAM AND THE CONSEQUENCE OF HIS ACTIONS (12-14)
      1. Through Adam, sin entered the world, and death as a
         consequence (12a)
      2. Thus death spread, for all sinned (12b)
      3. From the time of Adam to Moses, death reigned, even over those
         who had not sinned like Adam did (13-14)
    
   B. ADAM AND CHRIST COMPARED (15-19)
      1. Adam's offense brought many deaths, Christ's grace abounds
         even more (15)
      2. One offense produced the judgment of condemnation, but many
         offenses produced the free gift of justification (16)
      3. By Adam's offense death reigns, but those who receive the gift
         of righteousness will reign in life through Christ (17)
      4. Summary (18-19)
         a. Through Adam's offense judgment came to all men, resulting
            in condemnation (18a)
         b. Through Christ's act grace came to all, resulting in
            justification of life (18b)
         c. By Adam's disobedience many were made sinners (19a)
         d. By Christ's obedience many will be made righteous (19b)

   C. THE RELATIONSHIP OF LAW, SIN AND GRACE (20-21)
      1. Law entered that sin might abound, but grace abounds much more
         (20)
      2. Just as sin reigned in death, so grace reigns through
         righteousness to eternal life through Christ (21)

WORDS TO PONDER

reconciliation - the act of bringing peace between two parties (e.g.,
                 between man and God)

transgression - violation of law; sin

death - physically:  separation of body and spirit;
        spiritually: separation between man and God

eternal life - the alternative to spiritual death, a result of
               justification
      
REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR THE CHAPTER

1) List the main points of this chapter
   - The Blessings Of Justification (1-11)
   - Comparing Christ With Adam (12-21)

2) Name some benefits we enjoy as the result of justification (1-2)
   - Peace with God, access to grace, rejoicing in hope

3) Why can Christians rejoice even in the middle of trials? (3-5)
   - Knowing trials can produce perseverance, character and hope

4) How did God demonstrate His love for us? (6-8)
   - By having Christ die for us when we were still sinners

5) What in addition to Jesus' death is involved in our ultimate
   salvation? (10)
   - His present life, which saves us from the wrath to come

6) What was the consequence of Adam's sin upon all men? (12)
   - Death (I understand Paul to mean physical death; to see why, I
     highly recommend Moses Lard's commentary on this passage.
     Commentaries by J. W. McGarvey and David Lipscomb take a similar
     view.  For the view that spiritual death is under consideration,
     see Robert L. Whiteside's commentary.)

7) What comparison is made between Adam and Christ? (12-19)
   - Just as Adam through his sin brought physical death to all, so
     Christ through His obedience will give life to all (through the
     resurrection - cf. 1Co 15:21-22)
   - But Christ does even more; to those who will receive it, he offers
     "an abundance of grace and the gift of righteousness" so they can
     reign in life through Jesus (cf. v. 17)

8) Which has abounded more:  sin, or grace? (20)
   - Grace
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